Nitrazepam (Dumolid)

Table of Contents

Nitrazepam is a part of barbiturate derivatives – generally used as preoperative medications (sedation) or to treat seizures. Nitrazepam is distributed under the trademarks Seconal and Tuinal. This drug is considered as anesthetic, anticonvulsant, sedative, and hypnosis.

Nitrazepam is usually also used to treat insomnia and infantile spasms (seizures occur in infants). Follow the instructions as listed on the drug label and dosage as directed by your doctor. Be sure you have consulted your doctor before taking this medicine.

Dosing Considerations for Nitrazepam (Dumolid)

Take nitrazepam as exactly directed by your doctor. Do not increase or decrease the dose without asking your doctor first. Below are dosage guidelines for nitrazepam:

Condition: Insomnia

Oral medications can help with short-term treatment for insomnia. The dosage recommendations are as follows:

  • Dosage for adults: 5 mg at night–can be increased to 10 mg if necessary
  • Dosage for the elderly and more susceptible patients: adult dose ≤ normal.

Condition: Infantile spasms

Oral medications are useful for treating infantile spasms in children. The dosage recommendations are as follows:

  • Dosage for children: Infants: 125 mcg / kg bid; gradually increased to 250-500 mcg / kg. 

Infantile spasms are seizures that occur in infants. This condition causes stiffness in the arms and legs and bends the baby’s head forward. Babies also may experience developmental delays or lose skills, such as talking, sitting, or crawling.

Guidelines for Nitrazepam (Dumolid)

Follow the rules for using nitrazepam as directed by your doctor. Here’s how to use nitrazepam:

  • Use clotrimazole according to your doctor’s instructions.
  • Read the instructions on the drug label before starting treatment.
  • Nitrazepam is usually taken two to three times a day until the infection clears up.
  • Never share the medicine with anyone else, even if the condition looks the same as yours.
  • Get the most out of your treatment by always washing your hands thoroughly and drying your hands thoroughly before and after using clotrimazole that comes into contact with the eyes, ears, or mucous membranes (such as the mouth, vagina, inside of the nose, etc.).
  • Complete treatment with clotrimazole, otherwise your infection will likely recur.
  • Before using any medication, check with your pharmacist to find out which type of medication is safe to use with clotrimazole.
  • Your condition may likely improve after a few days. If your condition does not improve after seven days, you should consult your doctor to identify the cause and suggest the right treatment.

Indications for Nitrazepam (Dumolid)

Your doctor may recommend nitrazepam to treat short-term insomnia – it can work in 30 to 60 minutes to keep you asleep for 6 to 8 hours.

In addition, nitrazepam has also been used to treat epilepsy, particularly infantile spasm – seizures that occur in infants. This type of drug is also indicated for the treatment of myoclonic seizures.

Myoclonic spasms are attacks of muscles or groups of muscles that jerk and twitch in a short period of time and are similar to shock. These seizures usually do not last more than a second or two. Even people who do not have epilepsy can have myoclonus during hiccups or sudden jerks that can wake you in the middle of your sleep. 

Contraindications for Nitrazepam (Dumolid)

Be aware of nitrazepam contraindications, including:

  • Children younger than 6 months (oral).
  • Children younger than 30 days (parenteral).
  • Hypersensitivity to nitrazepam or other components of the formulation. Cross-sensitivity with other benzodiazepines is possible.
  • Narrow-angle glaucoma, caused by a blocked drainage in the eye, causing a rapid buildup of intraocular pressure.
  • Porphyria – a group of disorders caused by the buildup of natural chemicals that produce porphyrin in your body. Porphyrins are essential for hemoglobin function, as the proteins in your red blood cells link to porphyrin, bind iron, and carry oxygen to your organs and tissues.

Warnings

Before using nitrazepam, pay attention to the following warnings:

  • Do not give nitrazepam to patients with respiratory diseases, liver, and kidney disorders; pregnant patients and nursing mothers; children and the elderly, and patients with fall risks.
  • No history of drug abuse or acute alcoholism.
  • Nitrazepam can cause depression, especially if there is a risk of suicide. Additionally, it may also interfere with a patient’s ability to drive or operate the machine.
  • Monitor the patient for a deep, uninterrupted sleep for 7 to 8 hours after taking the drug.
  • Nitrazepam can cause anterograde amnesia – a condition in which a person is unable to create new memories after an event that triggers amnesia. This disorder may involve a partial or total inability to remember events that have occurred.

Nitrazepam Drug Interactions

Medicines can interact if used with food or other types of drugs. Drug interactions may include:

  • Medications with depressive effect on the CNS, with ethanol, drugs containing ethanol increase the inhibitory effect on the CNS.
  • Rifampicin increases the excretion of nitrazepam.
  • Anticonvulsant drugs can increase the toxic effect.
  • Nitrazepam increases the potential response of antihypertensive drugs.
  • Estrogen containing oral contraceptives increases the concentration of nitrazepam in blood plasma.
  • Probenecid may interfere with the glucuronide binding of nitrazepam – which increases its concentration in blood plasma. The therapeutic effect can lead to excessive sedation.
  • Cimetidine increases the concentration of nitrazepam in blood plasma, which may be accompanied by an increase in sedation. This may slow down the metabolism of the liver. This can lead to an extension of T1 /2 nitrazepam and an increase in concentration in blood plasma.

Side Effects of Nitrazepam (Dumolid)

As with any medicines in general, nitrazepam has its own side effects. Possible side effects of nitrazepam include: 

  • Depression.
  • Mood swings
  • Excessive sleepiness
  • Disorientation or confusion.
  • Lack of coordination (ataxia).

Other possible side effects include:

  • Vertigo.
  • Tremor.
  • Confusion.
  • Blood disorders.
  • Mental depression.
  • Jaundice.
  • Changes in sex drive
  • Blurred vision.
  • Dizziness or headache.
  • Slurred speech or dysarthria.
  • Urinary retention or urinary incontinence.
  • Lack body coordination (ataxia).
  • Gastrointestinal disorders (bleeding in the digestive tract).

Side Effects of Flunitrazepam

Flunitrazepam can cause amnesia and paradoxical excitation, respiratory depression (hypoventilation), and hypotension – if consumed in higher doses.

Flunitrazepam may affect central control of endocrine function through activities in the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary. Long-term users may develop symptoms of endocrine such as: 

  • Swollen breasts
  • Premenstrual tension.
  • Irregular menstrual periods.
  • Galactorrhea, lactation occurs without pregnancy.
  • Gynecomastia, enlarged male breast glands.

After waking up from a deep sleep, you may not remember some of the events that happened before.

Contact your doctor or pharmacist through Smarter Health to find out the right dosage before taking nitrazepam. Smarter Health allows you to access health services whenever you need them.

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